In general, transport demand is derived from the intrinsic demand, that is, the purpose of the trip. For example, in Japanese rural areas, the main purposes of the use of public transport by elderly people are going to hospital and shopping. Thus, in order to analyse transport demand and promote the use of public transport, we should analyse its intrinsic demand and investigate why and to where people take trains or buses. In this paper we focus on the transport demand for shopping, because the analysis on shopping behaviour is expected to have implications for downtown revitalisation and social inclusion. First, we analyse the impact of stimulating intrinsic demand on the transport demand, by studying cases of private-sector railway companies in Japanese metropolitan areas. Next, we analyse in reverse, the impact of stimulating transport demand on the intrinsic demand, by studying cases of a “shopping bus” in Japanese small and medium-sized cities.