Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent joint disorder in the elderly, and there is no effective treatment. Imaging is essential for evaluating the synovial joint structures (including cartilage, meniscus, subchondral bone marrow and synovium) for diagnosis, prognosis, and follow-up. This article describes the roles and limitations of both conventional radiography and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and considers the use of other modalities (eg, ultrasonography, nuclear medicine, computed tomography [CT], and CT/MR arthrography) in clinical practice and OA research. The emphasis throughout is on OA of the knee. This article emphasizes research developments and literature evidence published since 2008.