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dc.contributor.authorYoung, Alexander
dc.contributor.authorFlament, Nicolas
dc.contributor.authorMaloney, Kayla T.
dc.contributor.authorWilliams, Simon E
dc.contributor.authorMatthews, Kara J
dc.contributor.authorZahirovic, Sabin
dc.contributor.authorMuller, R. Dietmar
dc.date.accessioned2019-08-15
dc.date.available2019-08-15
dc.date.issued2019-08-15
dc.identifier.citationYoung, A., Flament, N., Maloney, K., Williams, S., Matthews, K., Zahirovic, S., & Müller, R. D. (2019). Global kinematics of tectonic plates and subduction zones since the late Paleozoic Era. Geoscience Frontiers, 10(3), 989–1013. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gsf.2018.05.011en_AU
dc.identifier.issn16749871
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/2123/20918
dc.description.abstractDetailed global plate motion models that provide a continuous description of plate boundaries through time are an effective tool for exploring processes both at and below the Earth's surface. A new generation of numerical models of mantle dynamics pre- and post-Pangea timeframes requires global kinematic descriptions with full plate reconstructions extending into the Paleozoic (410 Ma). Current plate models that cover Paleozoic times are characterised by large plate speeds and trench migration rates because they assume that lowermost mantle structures are rigid and fixed through time. When used as a surface boundary constraint in geodynamic models, these plate reconstructions do not accurately reproduce the present-day structure of the lowermost mantle. Building upon previous work, we present a global plate motion model with continuously closing plate boundaries ranging from the early Devonian at 410 Ma to present day. We analyse the model in terms of surface kinematics and predicted lower mantle structure. The magnitude of global plate speeds has been greatly reduced in our reconstruction by modifying the evolution of the synthetic Panthalassa oceanic plates, implementing a Paleozoic reference frame independent of any geodynamic assumptions, and implementing revised models for the Paleozoic evolution of North and South China and the closure of the Rheic Ocean. Paleozoic (410–250 Ma) RMS plate speeds are on average ∼8 cm/yr, which is comparable to Mesozoic–Cenozoic rates of ∼6 cm/yr on average. Paleozoic global median values of trench migration trend from higher speeds (∼2.5 cm/yr) in the late Devonian to rates closer to 0 cm/yr at the end of the Permian (∼250 Ma), and during the Mesozoic–Cenozoic (250–0 Ma) generally cluster tightly around ∼1.1 cm/yr. Plate motions are best constrained over the past 130 Myr and calculations of global trench convergence rates over this period indicate median rates range between 3.2 cm/yr and 12.4 cm/yr with a present day median rate estimated at ∼5 cm/yr. For Paleozoic times (410–251 Ma) our model results in median convergence rates largely ∼5 cm/yr. Globally, ∼90% of subduction zones modelled in our reconstruction are determined to be in a convergent regime for the period of 120–0 Ma. Over the full span of the model, from 410 Ma to 0 Ma, ∼93% of subduction zones are calculated to be convergent, and at least 85% of subduction zones are converging for 97% of modelled times. Our changes improve global plate and trench kinematics since the late Paleozoic and our reconstructions of the lowermost mantle structure challenge the proposed fixity of lower mantle structures, suggesting that the eastern margin of the African LLSVP margin has moved by as much as ∼1450 km since late Permian times (260 Ma). The model of the plate-mantle system we present suggests that during the Permian Period, South China was proximal to the eastern margin of the African LLSVP and not the western margin of the Pacific LLSVP as previous thought. © 2018 China University of Geosciences (Beijing) and Peking Universityen_AU
dc.description.sponsorshipThis research was undertaken with the assistance of resources from the National Computational Infrastructure (NCI), which is supported by the Australian Government. This research has been conducted with the support of the Australian Government Research Training Program Scholarship. NF was supported by Australian Research Council grant DE160101020 . SZ and RDM were supported by Australian Research Council grant IH130200012 and DP130101946 . Figures were constructed using Generic Mapping ( Wessel et al., 2013 ), GPlates ( www.gplates.org ) and ArcGIS. We are thankful for the constructive suggestions of two anonymous reviewers and the Editor that considerably improved the original manuscript. The digital files for viewing our reconstruction can be downloaded via the webdav link: https://www.earthbyte.org/webdav/ftp/Data_Collections/Young_etal_2018_GeoscienceFrontiers/Young_etal_2018_GeoscienceFrontiers_GPlatesPlateMotionModel.zip . Appendix Aen_AU
dc.language.isoen_AUen_AU
dc.publisherElsevieren_AU
dc.relationARC-DP130101946,DE160101020,IH130200012en_AU
dc.rights© 2018 China University of Geosciences (Beijing) and Peking Universityen_AU
dc.subjectLower mantle structureen_AU
dc.subjectPaleozoicen_AU
dc.subjectPlate velocitiesen_AU
dc.subjectSouth Chinaen_AU
dc.subjectSubduction zone kinematicsen_AU
dc.subjectTectonic reconstructionen_AU
dc.titleGlobal kinematics of tectonic plates and subduction zones since the late Paleozoic Eraen_AU
dc.typeArticleen_AU
dc.subject.asrc040313en_AU
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.gsf.2018.05.011
dc.type.pubtypePublisher versionen_AU


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