The automated segmentation of regions of interest (ROIs) in medical imaging is the fundamental requirement for the derivation of high-level semantics for image analysis in clinical decision support systems. Traditional segmentation approaches such as region-based depend heavily upon hand-crafted features and a priori knowledge of the user. As such, these methods are difficult to adopt within a clinical environment. Recently, methods based on fully convolutional networks (FCN) have achieved great success in the segmentation of general images. FCNs leverage a large labeled dataset to hierarchically learn the features that best correspond to the shallow appearance as well as the deep semantics of the images. However, when applied to medical images, FCNs usually produce coarse ROI detection and poor boundary definitions primarily due to the limited number of labeled training data and limited constraints of label agreement among neighboring similar pixels. In this paper, we propose a new stacked FCN architecture with multi-channel learning (SFCN-ML). We embed the FCN in a stacked architecture to learn the foreground ROI features and background non-ROI features separately and then integrate these different channels to produce the final segmentation result. In contrast to traditional FCN methods, our SFCN-ML architecture enables the visual attributes and semantics derived from both the fore- and background channels to be iteratively learned and inferred. We conducted extensive experiments on three public datasets with a variety of visual challenges. Our results show that our SFCN-ML is more effective and robust than a routine FCN and its variants, and other state-of-the-art methods.