|Title:||Accounting for travel time variability in the optimal pricing of cars and buses|
|Authors:||Hensher, David A.|
Bliemer, Michiel C. J.
Travel time variability
|Citation:||Tirachini, A., & Hensher, D. A., & Bliemer, M. C. J. (2014). Accounting for travel time variability in the optimal pricing of cars and buses. Transportation, 41(5), 947 - 971.|
|Abstract:||A number of studies have shown that in addition to the common influences on mode, route and time of day of travel choices such as travel time and cost, travel time variability plays an increasingly important role, especially in the presence of traffic congestion on roads and crowding on public transport. The dominant focus of modelling and implementation of optimal pricing that incorporates trip time variability has been in the context of road pricing for cars. The main objective of this paper is to introduce a non-trivial extension to the existing literature on optimal pricing in a multimodal setting, building in the role of travel time variability as a source of disutility for car and bus users. We estimate the effect of variability in travel time and bus headway on optimal prices (i.e., tolls for cars and fares for buses) and optimal bus capacity (i.e., frequencies and size) accounting for crowding on buses, under a social welfare maximisation framework. Travel time variability is included by adopting the well-known mean-variance model, using an empirical relationship between the mean and standard deviation of travel times. We illustrate our model with an application to a highly congested corridor with cars and buses as travel alternatives in Sydney, Australia. There are three main findings that have immediate policy implications: (i) including travel time variability results in higher optimal car tolls and substantial increases in toll revenue, while optimal bus fares remain almost unchanged; (ii) when bus headways are variable, the inclusion of travel time variability as a source of disutility for users yields higher optimal bus frequencies; and (iii) including both travel time variability and crowding discomfort leads to higher optimal bus sizes.|
|Type of Work:||Article|
|Type of Publication:||Pre-print|
|Appears in Collections:||Research Papers and Publications. Institute of Transport and Logistics Studies|
|Tirachini, Hensher and Bliemer Jan 2014 Transportation final.pdf||434.67 kB||Adobe PDF|
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