This thesis explores the cultural and artistic influence of Britain in Australia, or the Britishness of the Australian character, from the years directly following the end of World War I until 1941. Australia during this period was often described as an isolated, or a “quarantined”, culture characterised by its delay in accepting modernism. Despite Britain ceding more independence and autonomy to its dominions at the time, Australia sought to maintain its cultural and imperial bond, identifying exclusively with Britain in a number of ways. For instance, many Australians still considered Britain to be “Home”, while London continued to attract expatriate artists from Australia. In the words of Australian art historian Daniel Thomas, Australia developed a “bi-hemispheric Anglo-Australian cultural identity”, which was marked by nationalism, conservatism and masculinism. This thesis examines the artistic exchanges between Australia and Britain in the 1920s and 1930s, shedding light on the complexities of cultural identification. It considers in particular the fact that such nationalistic historiography of Australian art has denied women’s agency in defining Australian art and identity. The national collections of British art, as well as the mechanisms of the circulation of modern British art in Australia, are closely examined to demonstrate the dualism of Australian cultural identity and the marginalisation of women within this history, not only as artists but also as art patrons. This thesis discusses the experience of Australian expatriates in England, considering how they sought to integrate into the British art scene. In doing so, it brings to the fore the significance of expatriatism as a concept that shaped both Australian and British art historiographies. Finally, it conceptualises the achievements of two Australian expatriate women, Edith May Fry and Clarice Zander, who, as exhibition curators, played a crucial role in disseminating modernism in Australia and defining Australia’s cultural identity during the interwar period. The aim of this thesis is thus to demonstrate the mechanisms through which Australia sought to represent its national character in art, as it strove to maintain its identification with Britain.