|Title:||Human rabies post exposure prophylaxis in Bhutan, 2005-2008: Trends and risk factors.|
Dhand, Navneet K.
Ward, Michael P.
|Citation:||Tenzin, Dhand, N. K., & Ward, M. P. (2011). Human rabies post exposure prophylaxis in Bhutan, 2005-2008: Trends and risk factors. Vaccine, 29, 4094 - 4101. Available online at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0264410X11005093 (paywalled)|
|Abstract:||The aim of this study was to understand the use and distribution of human rabies post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) vaccine in Bhutan and to identify risk factors for receiving an incomplete course of the vaccine. We analysed post exposure treatment records from 28 medical hospitals from 2005 to 2008. Males (59%) accounted for significantly more PEP events than females (41%) across all age groups (P < 0.001). Children–particularly 5–9 years of age – received more rabies PEP than other age groups. Animal bite and non-bite accounted for 27% (n = 2239) and 16% (n = 1303) of rabies PEP, respectively, whilst 57% (n = 4773) of the PEP events had no recorded information about the reasons for post exposure treatment. Post exposure treatment was provided throughout the year with a higher number during the winter and spring months. The number of PEP events significantly (P < 0.001) increased between 2005 and 2008, from <1000 to >2800 events, respectively. Significantly (P < 0.001) more PEP events were reported from the southern parts of Bhutan that are endemic for rabies or those areas in eastern Bhutan that have reported rabies outbreaks than other parts of Bhutan. Forty percent (n = 3360) of the patients received an incomplete course of vaccine (<5-doses of vaccine intramuscular). Results suggest that patients with animal bite injury were less likely to receive an incomplete vaccine course than non-bite recipients, and patients presented to hospitals in rabies endemic or outbreak areas were less likely to receive an incomplete course than in non-rabies areas or rabies free areas. Similarly, patients presenting to hospitals for PEP during spring and summers months were less likely to receive an incomplete vaccine course than those during other seasons. Public education campaigns need to be conducted in Bhutan to reduce dog bite incidents and also to prevent mass exposures to rabies. A thorough assessment of each individual case based on the WHO guidelines would reduce unnecessary PEP (and therefore costs) in Bhutan.|
|Type of Work:||Article|
|Appears in Collections:||Research Papers and Publications. Veterinary Science|
|human-rabies-post-exposure-PP-2011.pdf||623.75 kB||Adobe PDF|