|Title:||Comparative pathology and ecological implications of two myxosporean parasites in native Australian frogs and the invasive cane toad.|
Dhand, Navneet K.
Phalen, D. N.
|Publisher:||Public Library of Science|
|Citation:||Hartigan, A., Dhand, N. K., Rose, K., Slapeta, J., & Phalen, D. N. (2012). Comparative pathology and ecological implications of two myxosporean parasites in native Australian frogs and the invasive cane toad. PLoS One, 7(10), e43780. Published: October 3, 2012 http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0043780 "|
|Abstract:||Myxosporean parasites Cystodiscus axonis and C. australis are pathogens of native and exotic Australian frog species. The pathology and ecological outcomes of infection with these parasites were investigated in this study. Gliosis was correlated to Cystodiscus axonis plasmodia in the brains of (9/60) tadpoles and (3/9) adult endangered Green and golden bell frogs using ordinal regression. Severe host reactions to C. axonis (haemorrhage, necrosis, and vasulitis) were observed in the brains of threatened Southern bell frogs (8/8), critically endangered Booroolong frogs (15/44) and Yellow spotted bell frogs (3/3). Severe brain lesions were associated with behavioural changes, neurological dysfunction, and spontaneous death. Both C. axonis and C. australis develop in the bile ducts of tadpoles, the plasmodia were significantly associated with biliary hyperplasia, inflammation and the loss of hepatocytes in (34/72) Green and golden bell frog tadpoles using ordinal regression. These lesions were so severe that in some cases 70% of the total liver was diseased. Normal liver function in tadpoles is necessary for metamorphosis, metabolism, and immune function. We postulate that this extensive liver damage would have significant host health impacts. Severe hepatic myxosporidiosis was more prevalent in tadpoles examined in autumn and winter (overwintered), suggestive of delayed metamorphosis in infected tadpoles, which would have serious flow-on effects in small populations. We compared the sensitivity of histopathology and species-specific PCR in the detection of C. australis and C. axonis. PCR was determined to be the most sensitive method (detection limit 1 myxospore equivalent of ribosomal DNA). Histology, however, had the advantage of assessing the impact of the parasite on the host. It was concluded that these parasites have the potential for significant ecological impacts, because of their high prevalence of infection and their ability to cause disease in some frogs.|
|Description:||This article comes with supporting material (figure and table, both in one file)|
|Rights and Permissions:||CC BY 4.0|
|Type of Work:||Article|
|Type of Publication:||Publisher version|
|Appears in Collections:||Research Papers and Publications. Veterinary Science|
|Comparative-Pathology-pdf-2012.pdf||main article||1.69 MB||Adobe PDF|
|Comparative-Pathology-Supporting information.pdf||Supporting information, Figure S1 and Table S1||263.66 kB||Adobe PDF|