This Discussion Paper considers food security in the context of food supply and access systems, and articulates how it links with food consumption patterns, weight and risk of chronic disease, in order to provide direction for research, policy and programs. The paper provides an overview of what is meant by the term ‘food security’, a summary of studies describing patterns of food insecurity in Australia, and strategies for promoting food security, with examples of programs. This synthesis also discusses the implications for research and programs in NSW. Importantly, it also seeks to clarify where there are or might be both common and divergent approaches to addressing food security and obesity and chronic disease prevention. Whilst there are known global and national influences on food security, this document mainly focuses on community, household and individual level food security.