to determine whether pain increases the risk of developing the frailty phenotype and whether frailty increases the risk of developing chronic or intrusive pain, using longitudinal data.
longitudinal data from the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project (CHAMP), a prospective population based cohort study.
a total of 1,705 men aged 70 years or older, living in an urban area of New South Wales, Australia.
data on the presence of chronic pain (daily pain for at least 3 months), intrusive pain (pain causing moderate to severe interference with activities) and the criteria for the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) frailty phenotype were collected in three waves, from January 2005 to October 2013. Data on age, living arrangements, education, smoking status, alcohol consumption, body mass index, comorbidities, cognitive function, depressive symptoms and history of vertebral or hip fracture were also collected and included as covariates in the analyses.
a total of 1,705 participants were included at baseline, of whom 1,332 provided data at the 2-year follow-up and 940 at the 5-year follow-up. Non-frail (robust and pre-frail) men who reported chronic pain were 1.60 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02–2.51, P = 0.039) times more likely to develop frailty at follow-up, compared to those with no pain. Intrusive pain did not significantly increase the risk of future frailty. Likewise, the frailty status was not associated with future chronic or intrusive pain in the adjusted analysis.
the presence of chronic pain increases the risk of developing the frailty phenotype in community-dwelling older men.