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|Title: ||Modelling of Solar Kilns and The Development of An Optimised Schedule for Drying Hardwood Timber|
|Authors: ||Haque, M. Nawshadul|
|Keywords: ||Solar kilns;Timber drying;optimised schedule;wood seasoning;Eucalyptus pilularis;modelling;hardwood|
|Issue Date: ||2006|
|Publisher: ||University of Sydney. Chemical Engineering|
|Abstract: ||This research examines the drying of hardwood timber with particular reference to seasoning blackbutt (Eucalyptus pilularis) in a solar kiln. The aims of this research were to develop an optimised drying schedule for drying blackbutt and to develop and validate a mathematical model for a solar kiln. In the first stage of this study, the cross-grain physical and mechanical properties were determined for blackbutt timber so that an optimised schedule (based on drying within a limiting strain envelope) can be developed using model predictive control techniques for drying 43 mm thick (green) blackbutt timber boards in solar kilns. This optimised schedule has been developed and tested in the laboratory. The drying time was 10% shorter for this schedule than the original schedule, compared with an expected reduction in drying time of 14% (relative to the original schedule). Overall the quality was slightly better and the drying time was shorter for the optimised schedule compared with the original schedule. A complete solar kiln model has been developed and validated based on comparisons between the predicted and the measured internal air temperatures, relative humidities and timber moisture contents. The maximum difference between the actual and predicted moisture contents was 0.05 kg/kg. The agreement between the predicted and measured temperatures of the internal air is reasonable, and both the predictions and measurements have a similar cyclical pattern. The generally good agreement between the model prediction of the final moisture content and its measurement may be due to the careful measurement of the boundary conditions such as the solar energy input. The key uncertainties were identified as the heat exchanger output, the measurement of the initial moisture content, the amount of accumulation of condensate on the floor, and the estimation of sky temperature. The significant uncertainty (18%) in the estimation of the initial moisture content is a key reason for the mismatch between the model prediction and the measurements. In terms of operating variables, the energy release rate from the heat exchanger had the greatest effect on the simulated performance, followed by the water spray and venting rates. The simulation suggested that a material with a lower transmissivity to thermal radiation may effectively lower radiation losses, improving the kiln performance, so such materials for glazing is a high priority.|
|Rights and Permissions: ||Copyright Haque, M. Nawshadul;http://www.library.usyd.edu.au/copyright.html|
|Appears in Collections:||Sydney Digital Theses (Open Access)|
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