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|Title: ||Efficient Solutions to Autonomous Mapping and Navigation Problems|
|Authors: ||Williams, Stefan Bernard|
|Keywords: ||Mobile Robot;Simultaneous Localisation and Mapping;AUV|
|Issue Date: ||2001|
|Publisher: ||University of Sydney. Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering|
|Abstract: ||This thesis deals with the Simultaneous Localisation and Mapping algorithm as it pertains to the deployment of mobile systems in unknown environments. Simultaneous Localisation and Mapping (SLAM) as defined in this thesis is the process of concurrently building up a map of the environment and using this map to obtain improved estimates of the location of the vehicle. In essence, the vehicle relies on its ability to extract useful navigation information from the data returned by its sensors. The vehicle typically starts at an unknown location with no a priori knowledge of landmark locations. From relative observations of landmarks, it simultaneously computes an estimate of vehicle location and an estimate of landmark locations. While continuing in motion, the vehicle builds a complete map of landmarks and uses these to provide continuous estimates of the vehicle location. The potential for this type of navigation system for autonomous systems operating in unknown environments is enormous. One significant obstacle on the road to the implementation and deployment of large scale SLAM algorithms is the computational effort required to maintain the correlation information between features in the map and between the features and the vehicle. Performing the update of the covariance matrix is of O(n3) for a straightforward implementation of the Kalman Filter. In the case of the SLAM algorithm, this complexity can be reduced to O(n2) given the sparse nature of typical observations. Even so, this implies that the computational effort will grow with the square of the number of features maintained in the map. For maps containing more than a few tens of features, this computational burden will quickly make the update intractable - especially if the observation rates are high. An effective map-management technique is therefore required in order to help manage this complexity. The major contributions of this thesis arise from the formulation of a new approach to the mapping of terrain features that provides improved computational efficiency in the SLAM algorithm. Rather than incorporating every observation directly into the global map of the environment, the Constrained Local Submap Filter (CLSF) relies on creating an independent, local submap of the features in the immediate vicinity of the vehicle. This local submap is then periodically fused into the global map of the environment. This representation is shown to reduce the computational complexity of maintaining the global map estimates as well as improving the data association process by allowing the association decisions to be deferred until an improved local picture of the environment is available. This approach also lends itself well to three natural extensions to the representation that are also outlined in the thesis. These include the prospect of deploying multi-vehicle SLAM, the Constrained Relative Submap Filter and a novel feature initialisation technique. Results of this work are presented both in simulation and using real data collected during deployment of a submersible vehicle equipped with scanning sonar.|
|Rights and Permissions: ||Copyright Williams, Stefan Bernard;http://www.library.usyd.edu.au/copyright.html|
|Appears in Collections:||Sydney Digital Theses (Open Access)|
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