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|Title: ||Modulation of avian metabolism by dietary fatty acids|
|Authors: ||Newman, Ronald Edward|
|Keywords: ||chickens;triacylglycerols;energy metabolism;body composition;ethanclamine phospholipids;polyunsaturated fatty acids|
|Issue Date: ||2000|
|Publisher: ||University of Sydney. Veterinary Science|
|Abstract: ||The role of dietary fatty acids and their subsequent effects on metabolism has received considerable attention in mammalian species. It is becoming increasingly clear that fatty acids have metabolic roles over and above their influence on energy density of the diet. Recent studies have linked changes in the fatty acyl composition of the plasma membrane, induced by the dietary fat profile, to alterations in both lipid and glucose metabolism. These dietary induced changes have profound effects on insulin action, glucose transport and enzyme activity that regulate triglyceride and fatty acid synthesis, factors that ultimately influence protein and lipid deposition of animals. Because of their high growth rate, broiler chickens have a high requirement for energy and the use of triglycerides as a major energy source has resulted in a fat carcass. A change in the glucose-insulin balance has been suggested as being the main reason for differences in adiposity between broilers selected for fatness or leanness. The hypotheses of this thesis is based on the finding that dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA's) increase the sensitivity of muscle tissue to insulin and this would presumably augment insulin-stimulated glucose uptake into muscle cells. Therefore, increasing the capacity of broiler muscle tissue to utilise glucose as its principal energy substrate would reduce the bird's reliance on triglycerides and this inturn would result in a leaner carcass. The aims of this study are firstly to explore the role that dietary PUFA's from the n-3 and n-6 series have on the growth and body composition of broiler chickens and secondly to determine the relationships between dietary fatty acid profile, tissue insulin sensitivity and lipid deposition. Because dietary fatty acids have been implicated in the modulation of hormones important for the growth and development of animals, a third aim of this thesis is to determine the effects of dietary n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on pituitary and adrenal sensitivity. Since the modulation of metabolism by dietary fatty acids has been attributed to changes in the fatty acyl composition of the plasma membrane, the final aim of this study will be to investigate and characterise the molecular species of the breast muscle choline and ethanolamine phospholipids. Feeding either fish oil a source of n-3 PUFA's or sunflower oil a source of n-6 PUFA's fatty acids to broiler chickens resulted in a significant (P<0.01) reduction in the abdominal fat pad mass and a modest increase in breast muscle mass when compared to broilers fed edible tallow. Associated with the changes in carcass composition was an alteration in energy substrate utilisation. This was reflected by lower respiratory quotients and reduced triglyceride and insulin concentrations for the chickens fed the two PUFA diets. Coupled to the shift in energy metabolism was a significant (P<0.05) increase in the proportion of PUFA's incorporated into the abdominal fat pad and breast muscle. The dietary fat supplements resulted in the incorporation of specific fatty acid subtypes. Feeding fish oil significantly increased the proportion of long-chain n-3 PUFA's whereas feeding sunflower oil significantly increased the proportion of long-chain n-6 PUFA's compared to tallow feeding whose tissues were dominated by a higher proportion of saturated fatty acids. It was further shown that dietary n-3 and n-6 PUFA's enhanced glucose /insulin action. Feeding either fish oil or sunflower oil to broiler chickens increased insulin action when examined by an intravenous glucose tolerance test. The maximal insulin release in response to the glucose infusion was higher in the tallow fed group compared to either the sunflower oil or fish oil groups. To estimate the disappearance rate of glucose from the plasma and its incorporation into tissues, 2-deoxy-D-3H glucose was infused into each chicken. There were no significant differences in the clearance rate of 2-deoxy-D-3H glucose from the plasma. However, when measured under steady state conditions, the labelled glucose incorporation into the breast muscle was greater in birds fed fish oil compared to either tallow or sunflower oil feeding. The dietary fatty acid induced increase in insulin action suggests that the sensitivity of muscle cells to insulin was enhanced. This modulation of tissue sensitivity by dietary fatty acids was also shown to occur at the level of the pituitary. To provide an estimate of pituitary sensitivity, bolus GnRH and GHRH infusions were given on different days to chickens fed the three dietary treatments. Feeding sunflower oil (n-6 PUFA's) increased the level of GH that was released in response to the GHRH infusion when compared to birds fed either tallow or fish oil (n-3 PUFA's). This dietary fatty acid modulation appears to be specific to certain pituitary cell types as there was no effect on LH secretion following the GnRH infusion. Dietary fatty acid modulation of endocrine gland sensitivity is particular to the gland type. Although the dietary treatments mediated a distinct pattern in pituitary sensitivity to GHRH infusion, these same three diets did not influence adrenal sensitivity, as there was no difference in the corticosterone profile following either ACTH or CRF infusion. The previously observed physiological changes for the three dietary groups was expected to be positively correlated to an alteration of the plasma membrane phospholipids induced by the dietary fatty acids. Supplementation with fish oil (n-3 PUFA's) significantly increased levels of both eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) into the choline (PC) and ethanolamine (PE) breast muscle phospholipids compared to either sunflower oil (n-6 PUFA's) or tallow supplementation. The increase in n-3 PUFA incorporation was associated with a corresponding decrease in the proportion of arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4n-6) an event that would presumably alter substrate availability for the 1- and 2-series eicosanoids. However, feeding sunflower oil or tallow gave a molecular species profile that was remarkably similar in both fatty acid subtype and proportion. This suggests that the plasma membrane dynamics would be similar for these two dietary groups. Therefore, it is appears that factors other than a change in the fatty acyl- composition of the plasma membrane may be responsible for modifying the physiology of the broiler.|
|Rights and Permissions: ||Copyright Newman, Ronald Edward;http://www.library.usyd.edu.au/copyright.html|
|Appears in Collections:||Sydney Digital Theses (Open Access)|
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