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|Title: ||CMC Modelling of Enclosure Fires|
|Authors: ||Cleary, Matthew John|
|Keywords: ||carbon monoxide;fires;turbulent combustion;conditional moment closure|
|Issue Date: ||2004|
|Publisher: ||University of Sydney. Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering|
|Abstract: ||This thesis describes the implementation of the conditional moment closure (CMC) combustion model in a numerical scheme and its application to the modelling of enclosure fires. Prediction of carbon monoxide (CO) in the upper smoke layer of enclosure fires is of primary interest because it is a common cause of death. The CO concentration cannot be easily predicted by empirical means, so a method is needed which models the chemistry of a quenched, turbulent fire plume and subsequent mixing within an enclosed space. CMC is a turbulent combustion model which has been researched for over a decade. It has provided predictions of major and minor species in jet diffusion flames. The extension to enclosure fires is a new application for which the flow is complex and temperatures are well below adiabatic conditions. Advances are made in the numerical implementation of CMC. The governing combustion equations are cast in a conserved, finite volume formulation for which boundary conditions are uniquely defined. Computational efficiency is improved through two criteria which allow the reduction in the size of the computational domain without any loss of accuracy. Modelling results are compared to experimental data for natural gas fires burning under a hood. Comparison is made in the recirculating, post-flame region of the flow where temperatures are low and reactions are quenched. Due to the spatial flux terms contained in the governing equations, CMC is able to model the situation where chemical species are produced in the high temperature fire-plume and then transported to non-reacting regions. Predictions of CO and other species are in reasonable agreement with the experimental data over a range of lean and rich hood-fire conditions. Sensitivity of results to chemistry, temperature and modelling closures is inves- tigated. Species predictions are shown to be quite different for the two detailed chemical mechanisms used. Temperature conditions within the hood effect the for- mation of species in the plume prior to quenching and subsequently species predic- tions in the post-flame region are also effected. Clipped Gaussian and ß-function probability density functions (PDFs) are used for the stochastic mixture fraction. Species predictions in the plume are sensitive to the form of the PDF but in the post-flame region, where the ß-function approaches a Gaussian form, predictions are relatively insensitive. Two models are used for the conditional scalar dissipation: a uniform model, where the conditional quantity is set equal to the unconditional scalar dissipation across all mixture fraction space; and a model which is consistent with the PDF transport equation. In the plume, predictions of minor species are sensitive to the modelling used, but in the recirculating, post-flame region species are not significantly effected.|
|Rights and Permissions: ||Copyright Cleary, Matthew John;http://www.library.usyd.edu.au/copyright.html|
|Appears in Collections:||Sydney Digital Theses (Open Access)|
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