The human, along with other primates, has forward placed eyes, and an area of acute vision (the fovea) on each retina. The overlap of the visual fields and the hemi-decussation of the visual pathways at the optic chiasm provide the basis for binocular vision, in particular stereopsis, the accurate perception of the position of objects in three dimensional space and an improved ability to perceive the form of solid objects. An intricate system of eye movements is needed to achieve and maintain stable foveal fixation on each eye in an environment where visual targets vary in direction and depth, where the visual environment may be moving, the eyes or the rest of the body is moving. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of binocular alignment for far and near fixations, under relatively natural conditions. To achieve binocular fixation, accurate vergence eye movements are required to align the eyes, and to maintain this alignment when a person changes fixation to objects situated at different distances from the eyes. ‘Pure’ vergence eye movements occur when these objects are situated along the mid sagittal plane, however, in natural conditions other eye movement systems are also involved. To understand the contribution of different eye movement systems to binocular fixation at different distances, the accuracy of binocular alignment in subjects with normal binocular single vision was evaluated in subjects with normal binocular vision under the following conditions • Fixation on targets along the mid sagittal plane (vergence eye movements only) • Fixation on targets displaced to either side of the mid sagittal plane (combined vergence eye movements and saccades • Fixation on earth fixed targets situated straight ahead in space, but with the head tilted to either side (combined vergence eye movements, saccades and torsional eye movements). The protocol for all experiments was approved by the Human Ethics Committee of the University of Sydney and followed the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki. Throughout this thesis the term ‘binocular alignment’ will be used to describe the position of each eye during or following a change in vergence. The term ‘vergence error’ will refer to situations where the angle of vergence alignment is different from that required, so that the image of the fixation target does not fall on the fovea of one or both eyes.