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|Title:||Quantum Chemical Studies of Thermochemistry, Kinetics and Molecular Structure.|
|Authors:||Haworth, Naomi Louise|
|Keywords:||quantum chemistry theory;thermochemistry;kinetics;structure;fluorocarbons;phosphorus compounds;NO production;NNH;CFClBr2;phaseolotoxin;hydrogen bonding;enzyme inhibition|
|Publisher:||University of Sydney. Chemistry|
|Abstract:||This thesis is concerned with a range of chemical problems which are amenable to theoretical investigation via the application of current methods of computational quantum chemistry. These problems include the calculation of accurate thermochemical data, the prediction of reaction kinetics, the study of molecular potential energy surfaces, and the investigation of molecular structures and binding. The heats of formation (from both atomisation energies and isodesmic schemes) of a set of approximately 120 C1 and C2 fluorocarbons and oxidised fluorocarbons (along with C3F6 and CF3CHFCF2) were calculated with the Gaussian-3 (G3) method (along with several approximations thereto). These molecules are of importance in the flame chemistry of 2-H-heptafluoropropane, which has been proposed as a potential fire retardant with which to replace chloro- and bromofluorocarbons (CFC�s and BFC�s). The calculation of the data reported here was carried out in parallel with the modelling studies of Hynes et al.1-3 of shock tube experiments on CF3CHFCF3 and on C3F6 with either hydrogen or oxygen atoms. G3 calculations were also employed in conjunction with the experimental work of Owens et al.4 to describe the pyrolysis of CFClBr2 (giving CFCl) at a radiation wavelength of 265 nm. The theoretical prediction of the dissociation energy of the two C-Br bonds was found to be consistent with the energy at which carbene production was first observed, thus supporting the hypothesis that the pyrolysis releases two bromine radicals (rather than a Br2 molecule). On the basis of this interpretation of the experiments, the heat of formation of CFClBr2 is predicted to be 184 � 5 kJ mol-1, in good agreement with the G3 value of 188 � 5 kJ mol-1. Accurate thermochemical data was computed for 18 small phosphorus containing molecules (P2, P4, PH, PH2, PH3, P2H2, P2H4, PO, PO2, PO3, P2O, P2O2, HPO, HPOH, H2POH, H3PO, HOPO and HOPO2), most of which are important in the reaction model introduced by Twarowski5 for the combustion of H2 and O2 in the presence of phosphine. Twarowski reported that the H + OH recombination reaction is catalysed by the combustion products of PH3 and proposed two catalytic cycles, involving PO2, HOPO and HOPO2, to explain this observation. Using our thermochemical data we computed the rate coefficients of the most important reactions in these cycles (using transition state and RRKM theories) and confirmed that at 2000K both cycles have comparable rates and are significantly faster than the uncatalysed H + OH recombination. The heats of formation used in this work on phosphorus compounds were calculated using the G2, G3, G3X and G3X2 methods along with the far more extensive CCSD(T)/CBS type scheme. The latter is based on the evaluation of coupled cluster energies using the correlation consistent triple-, quadruple- and pentuple-zeta basis sets and extrapolation to the complete basis set (CBS) limit along with core-valence correlation corrections (with counterpoise corrections for phosphorus atoms), scalar relativistic corrections and spin-orbit coupling effects. The CCSD(T)/CBS results are consistent with the available experimental data and therefore constitute a convenient set of benchmark values with which to compare the more approximate Gaussian-n results. The G2 and G3 methods were found to be of comparable accuracy, however both schemes consistently underestimated the benchmark atomisation energies. The performance of G3X is significantly better, having a mean absolute deviation (MAD) from the CBS results of 1.8 kcal mol-1, although the predicted atomisation energies are still consistently too low. G3X2 (including counterpoise corrections to the core-valence correlation energy for phosphorus) was found to give a slight improvement over G3X, resulting in a MAD of 1.5 kcal mol-1. Several molecules were also identified for which the approximations underlying the Gaussian-n methodologies appear to be unreliable; these include molecules with multiple or strained P-P bonds. The potential energy surface of the NNH + O system was investigated using density functional theory (B3LYP/6-31G(2df,p)) with the aim of determining the importance of this route in the production of NO in combustion reactions. In addition to the standard reaction channels, namely decomposition into NO + NH, N2 + OH and H + N2O via the ONNH intermediate, several new reaction pathways were also investigated. These include the direct abstraction of H by O and three product channels via the intermediate ONHN, giving N2 + OH, H + N2O and HNO + N. For each of the species corresponding to stationary points on the B3LYP surface, valence correlated CCSD(T) calculations were performed with the aug-cc-pVxZ (x = Q, 5) basis sets and the results extrapolated to the complete basis set limit. Core-valence correlation corrections, scalar relativistic corrections and spin orbit effects were also included in the resulting energetics and the subsequent calculation of thermochemical data. Heats of formation were also calculated using the G3X method. Variational transition state theory was used to determine the critical points for the barrierless reactions and the resulting B3LYP energetics were scaled to be compatible with the G3X and CCSD(T)/CBS values. As the results of modelling studies are critically dependent on the heat of formation of NNH, more extensive CCSD(T)/CBS calculations were performed for this molecule, predicting the heat of formation to be 60.6 � 0.5 kcal mol-1. Rate coefficients for the overall reaction processes were obtained by the application of multi-well RRKM theory. The thermochemical and kinetic results thus obtained were subsequently used in conjunction with the GRIMech 3.0 reaction data set in modelling studies of combustion systems, including methane / air and CO / H2 / air mixtures in completely stirred reactors. This study revealed that, contrary to common belief, the NNH + O channel is a relatively minor route for the production of NO. The structure of the inhibitor Nd-(N'-Sulfodiaminophosphinyl)-L-ornithine, PSOrn, and the nature of its binding to the OTCase enzyme was investigated using density functional (B3LYP) theory. The B3LYP/6-31G(d) calculations on the model compound, PSO, revealed that, while this molecule could be expected to exist in an amino form in the gas phase, on complexation in the active site of the enzyme it would be expected to lose two protons to form a dinegative imino tautomer. This species is shown to bind strongly to two H3CNHC(NH2)2+ moieties (model compounds for arginine residues), indicating that the strong binding observed between inhibitor and enzyme is partially due to electrostatic interactions as well as extensive hydrogen bonding (both model Arg+ residues form hydrogen bonds to two different sites on PSO). Population analysis and hydrogen bonding studies have revealed that the intramolecular bonding in this species consists of either single or semipolar bonds (that is, S and P are not hypervalent) and that terminal oxygens (which, being involved in semipolar bonds, carry negative charges) can be expected to form up to 4 hydrogen bonds with residues in the active site. In the course of this work several new G3 type methods were proposed, including G3MP4(SDQ) and G3[MP2(Full)], which are less expensive approximations to G3, and G3X2, which is an extension of G3X designed to incorporate additional electron correlation. As noted earlier, G3X2 shows a small improvement on G3X; G3MP4(SDQ) and G3[MP2(Full)], in turn, show good agreement with G3 results, with MAD�s of ~ 0.4 and ~ 0.5 kcal mol-1 respectively. 1. R. G. Hynes, J. C. Mackie and A. R. Masri, J. Phys. Chem. A, 1999, 103, 5967. 2. R. G. Hynes, J. C. Mackie and A. R. Masri, J. Phys. Chem. A, 1999, 103, 54. 3. R. G. Hynes, J. C. Mackie and A. R. Masri, Proc. Combust. Inst., 2000, 28, 1557. 4. N. L. Owens, Honours Thesis, School of Chemistry, University of Sydney, 2001. 5. A. Twarowski, Combustion and Flame, 1995, 102, 41.|
|Rights and Permissions:||Copyright Haworth, Naomi Louise;http://www.library.usyd.edu.au/copyright.html|
|Appears in Collections:||Sydney Digital Theses (Open Access)|
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