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|Title: ||Solution Behaviour of Polyethylene Oxide, Nonionic Gemini Surfactants|
|Authors: ||FitzGerald, Paul Anthony|
|Keywords: ||Non ionic gemini surfactants;SANS;CMC;Phase Behaviour|
|Issue Date: ||2002|
|Publisher: ||University of Sydney. Chemistry|
|Abstract: ||In recent years there has been increasing interest in novel forms of surfactants. Of particular interest are gemini surfactants, which consist of two conventional surfactants joined by a spacer at the head groups, as they exhibit lower critical micelle concentrations than can be achieved by conventional surfactants. In this work, the self-assembly behaviour of several nonionic gemini surfactants with polyethylene oxide head groups (GemnEm, where n (= 20) is the number of carbons per tail and m (= 10, 15, 20 and 30) is the number of ethylene oxides per head group) were investigated. The Critical Micelle Concentrations (CMCs) were measured using a fluorescence probe technique. The CMCs are all ~2 x 10?7 M, with almost no variation with m. The CMCs are several orders of magnitude lower than conventional C12Em nonionic surfactants. The mixing behaviour of the gemini surfactants with conventional surfactants was also studied. They obeyed ideal mixing behaviour with both ionic and nonionic surfactants. Micelle morphologies were studied using Small Angle Neutron Scattering. The gemini surfactants with the larger head groups (i.e. Gem20E20 and Gem20E30) formed spherical micelles. Gem20E15 showed strong scattering at low Q, characteristic of elongated micelles. As the temperature was increased towards the cloud point, the scattering approached the Q-1 dependence predicted for infinite, straight rods. The existence of anisotropic micelles was supported by the viscosity of Gem20E15, which increases by several orders of magnitude on heating towards its cloud point. Phase behaviour was determined using Diffusive Interfacial Transport coupled to near-infrared spectroscopy. Much of the behaviour of these systems is similar to conventional nonionic surfactants. For example, Gem20E10 forms a dilute liquid isotropic phase (W) coexisting with a concentrated lamellar phase (La) at around room temperature and forms a sponge phase at higher temperatures. This is similar to the behaviour of C12E3 and C12E4. The other surfactants studied are all quite soluble in water and form liquid isotropic and hexagonal phases from room temperature. At higher concentrations Gem20E15 formed a cubic and then a lamellar phase while Gem20E20 formed a cubic phase and then an intermediate phase. This is also comparable to the phase behaviour of conventional nonionic surfactants except the intermediate phase, which is often only observed for surfactant systems with long alkyl tails.|
|Rights and Permissions: ||Copyright FitzGerald, Paul Anthony;http://www.library.usyd.edu.au/copyright.html|
|Appears in Collections:||Sydney Digital Theses (Open Access)|
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