The BCNU + O6benzylguanine (O6BG) driven selective enrichment strategy was first
established for enhanced transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells. This study describes a novel application of this BCNU + O6BG driven selective enrichment strategy in skeletal muscle stem cell transplantation. Furthermore, this study addresses the three main limitations observed in previously reported skeletal muscle stem cell transplantation strategies. Limitation of ineffective donor cells which lack the ability for successful engraftment was
overcome by using a heterogeneous population of donor cells which are present during a
normal skeletal muscle regeneration response. The limitation of donor cell death upon transplantation as a result of competition from the endogenous stem cells of the host muscles was overcome by elimination of host muscle stem cells with BCNU + O6BG treatment. Efficiency of elimination of host muscle stem cells was further demonstrated by the complete
inhibition of a regeneration response up to 3 months in injured, BCNU + O6BG treated
muscles. The limitation of localised engraftment as a result of intramuscular injection of donor cells was also addressed. The transplanted donor cells demonstrated the ability to migrate via systemic circulation. This characteristic of the donor cells would allow the transplantation of cells via intraarterial or intravenous delivery which would overcome the limitation of localised engraftment. Finally, application of the BCNU + O6BG driven
selective enrichment strategy in skeletal muscle stem cell transplantation demonstrated
enhanced engraftment. This is the first reported attempt of enhanced stem cell transplantation in a solid tissue achieved upon application of the BCNU + O6BG driven selective enrichment strategy. This study provides the basis for application of the BCNU + O6BG driven selective enrichment strategy in other tissues where stem cell transplantation is considered.