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|Title: ||Seismic Applications of Interactive Computational Methods|
|Authors: ||LI, MIN|
|Keywords: ||event picking;horizon tracking;image;sparse data|
|Issue Date: ||2000|
|Publisher: ||University of Sydney. THE SCHOOL OF GEOSCIENCES|
|Abstract: ||Effective interactive computing methods are needed in a number of specific areas of geophysical interpretation, even though the basic algorithms have been established. One approach to raise the quality of interpretation is to promote better interaction between human and the computer. The thesis is concerned with improving this dialog in three areas: automatic event picking, data visualization and sparse data imaging. Fully automatic seismic event picking methods work well in relatively good conditions. They collapse when the signal-to-noise ratio is low and the structure of the subsurface is complex. The interactive seismic event picking system described here blends the interpreter's guidance and judgment into the computer program, as it can bring the user into the loop to make subjective decisions when the picking problem is complicated. Several interactive approaches for 2-D event picking and 3-D horizon tracking have been developed. Envelope (or amplitude) threshold detection for first break picking is based on the assumption that the power of the signal is larger than that of the noise. Correlation and instantaneous phase pickers are designed for and better suited to picking other arrivals. The former is based on the cross-correlation function, and a model trace (or model traces) selected by the interpreter is needed. The instantaneous phase picker is designed to track spatial variations in the instantaneous phase of the analytic form of the arrival. The picking options implemented into the software package SeisWin were tested on real data drawn from many sources, such as full waveform sonic borehole logs, seismic reflection surveys and borehole radar profiles, as well as seven of the most recent 3-D seismic surveys conducted over Australian coal mines. The results show that the interactive picking system in SeisWin is efficient and tolerant. The 3-D horizon tracking method developed especially attracts industrial users. The visualization of data is also a part of the study, as picking accuracy, and indeed the whole of seismic interpretation depends largely on the quality of the final display. The display is often the only window through which an interpreter can see the earth's substructures. Display is a non-linear operation. Adjustments made to meet display deficiencies such as automatic gain control (AGC) have an important and yet ill-documented effect on the performance of pattern recognition operators, both human and computational. AGC is usually implemented in one dimension. Some of the tools in wide spread use for two dimensional image processing which are of great value in the local gain control of conventional seismic sections such as edge detectors, histogram equalisers, high-pass filters, shaded relief are discussed. Examples are presented to show the relative effectiveness of various display options. Conventional migration requires dense arrays with uniform coverage and uniform illumination of targets. There are, however, many instances in which these ideals can not be approached. Event migration and common tangent plane stacking procedures were developed especially for sparse data sets as a part of the research effort underlying this thesis. Picked-event migration migrates the line between any two points on different traces on the time section to the base map. The interplay between the space and time domain gives the interpreter an immediate view of mapping. Tangent plane migration maps the reflector by accumulating the energy from any two possible reflecting points along the common tangent lines on the space plane. These methods have been applied to both seismic and borehole-radar data and satisfactory results have been achieved.|
|Rights and Permissions: ||Copyright LI, MIN;http://www.library.usyd.edu.au/copyright.html|
|Appears in Collections:||Sydney Digital Theses (Open Access)|
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