The thesis spans the spectrum of causative and therapeutic aspects of chronic kidney disease (CKD), which is a significant and growing health burden. While it is desirable that these findings will translate into effective strategies to prevent CKD, kidney impairment is frequently diagnosed when advanced renal fibrosis has already developed. Thus, the second part of this thesis focuses on therapy and explores whether anti-inflammatory or anti fibrotic agents such as semicarbazide sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) inhibitor or cationic-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CI-6MPR) inhibitors show renoprotection and therefore proof of concept to develop as novel treatments. SSAO was studied in early renal fibrosis after unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) and in a diabetic mouse model that mimics the development of human diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Inhibition of SSAO with a highly selective, small molecule inhibitor reduced markers of extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition in the UUO model. Importantly, SSAO inhibition resulted in amelioration of proteinuria and glomerulosclerosis in the diabetic mice. It thus had a beneficial effect on preserving glomerular structure and function. We conclude that it may be a promising therapeutic strategy to limit the development of DKD and renal fibrosis of other aetiologies. CI-6MPR inhibition was studied in a UUO model and demonstrated a lower tubulointerstitial fibrosis index, collagen IV and fibronectin protein and mRNA expression when compared to untreated UUO mice. These results pave the way for translational studies in humans.