This project interrogates how hospitality operates as a concept and a political practice. Since the concept’s first sustained appearance as an object of social and political thought some thirty years ago, scholarship has centred almost entirely on the figure of the migrant and a critique of sovereign states and their often inhospitable attitudes and practices. This dissertation breaks with this tradition in two crucial respects. First, I attend to the governmental aspect of hospitality. I show how hospitality is being (re)conceptualised, indeed problematised, as a concern for security in our era of global flows and mobility. This dissertation thus contributes to current debates on governmentality through an extended analysis into the power relations of hospitality. Second, I focus on hosts rather than migrants, and in particular, on French citizens who host migrants today in defiance of laws forbidding it (and named “solidarity delinquents” as a result). Drawing on in-depth interviews, I show that France’s “solidarity delinquents” are savvy to the state’s instrumentalisation and politicisation of hospitality. Yet they too have a use for politicising both hospitality and themselves. My central claim is that defiant acts of hospitality constitute ways of “becoming political”. Specifically, the citizen-hosts are trying to reimagine what it means to be a French citizen and to recuperate and revive the French republican legacy of fraternity and equality. The crimes that they commit hold the state to account; yet at the same time, these help the citizens to care for themselves by reclaiming their own national and political identity. The historical and empirical analysis in this thesis captures the crucial yet undertheorised role that hospitality plays—as sometimes ally of the state and at other times of dissenting citizens—in shaping competing conceptions of what citizenship and identity can and does mean at certain times and places.