Show simple item record

FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorTorabian, Golnoosh
dc.date.accessioned2018-12-21
dc.date.available2019-06-22
dc.date.issued2018-04-18
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/2123/19726
dc.description.abstractElderberries, a rich source of polyphenols, have a high potential as a source of nutraceutical compounds for use in the treatment of influenza infection. However, due to insufficient extraction and limited stability of active compounds during processing, elderberries remain an underutilised resource. Thermal treatments, the most common pasteurisation method, used to prevent microbial contamination and the intrinsic polyphenol-degrading enzymes have a detrimental impact on thermo-labile active compounds and sensorial characteristics of food products. Moreover, microorganisms and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) found in elderberry juice can substantively decrease the bioactivity over time. Therefore, this project aims to develop a low-temperature process to increase the extraction and preserve the activity of the thermosensitive compounds, while promoting safety and shelf life. As an alternative sterilisation technique to high-temperature pasteurisation, a non-thermal process was designed with the aim of simultaneous inactivation of microorganisms and degradative enzymes. The process composed of blending elderberry fruit followed by a short high-pressure carbon dioxide (HPCO2) regimen in the presence of natural inhibitors such as citrate buffer. Also, this process enhanced the extraction and the stability of anthocyanin, the main antiviral compound in elderberry. Moreover, understanding elderberry’s mechanism of action in inhibiting influenza infection is a prerequisite for studying the impact of the processing on its anti-influenza activity. In this comprehensive report, elderberries’ mechanism of action is elucidated. Elderberry showed potent antiviral activity by a therapeutic index of 12 ± 1.3 against influenza infection. Moreover, inhibition by elderberry was stronger against the late stage influenza cycle than the early stage. The action of elderberry is both direct – suppressing viral entry, the post-infection phase, and viral transmission from cell to cell, and indirect – by modulating the release of cytokines such as IL-6, IL-8, and TNF. These data support the application of Sambucus nigra berries as nutraceuticals for the management of influenza infection. Treatment with cyn 3-glu endorses bioactive properties of this compound in elderberry that at least partly modulates its antiviral activity. Thus, the developed process represents a high-utility non-thermal approach for manufacturing heat-labile elderberry products with enhanced therapeutic benefits, improved sensorial attributes, and prolonged shelf life. It also has a high potential for pasteurisation of other juices and nutraceuticals that are rich sources of polyphenols.en_AU
dc.publisherUniversity of Sydneyen_AU
dc.publisherFaculty of Engineering and ITen_AU
dc.publisherThe School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineeringen_AU
dc.rightsThe author retains copyright of this thesis. It may only be used for the purposes of research and study. It must not be used for any other purposes and may not be transmitted or shared with others without prior permission.en_AU
dc.subjectelderberryen_AU
dc.subjectanthocyaninsen_AU
dc.subjectnon-thermal pasteurisationen_AU
dc.subjectshelf lifeen_AU
dc.subjectanti-influenza activityen_AU
dc.titleOptimising the Production of Natural Anti-Viral Product from Elderberry Juiceen_AU
dc.typePhD Doctorateen_AU
dc.type.pubtypeDoctor of Philosophy Ph.D.en_AU
dc.description.disclaimerAccess is restricted to staff and students of the University of Sydney . UniKey credentials are required. Non university access may be obtained by visiting the University of Sydney Library.en_AU


Show simple item record

Associated file/s

Associated collections

Show simple item record

There are no previous versions of the item available.