|dc.description.abstract||Diseases caused by rust fungi represent critical constraints to global plant production. A characteristic feature of these pathogens is the striking pigments they produce in one or more spore forms, which give them a rusty appearance. These pigments are thought to protect rust fungi against UV radiation and oxidative stress, and possibly act as virulence factors.
The cytoplasmic carotenoid pigment composition and relative abundance of 14 rust species were studied, including Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt), P. striiformis f. sp. tritici, P. triticina, P. hordei, P. psidii, P. thaliae, P. oxalidis, Uromyces viciae-fabae, and Phragmidium rubi-idaei, along with colour mutants of several rust species with white, chocolate, pale yellow, dark brown, black, grey, yellow, yellow-orange, dark red and orange urediniospores. Four carotenoids had been found in rust fungi: phytoene, lycopene, -carotene and -carotene. The carotenoid composition did not vary much within rust species but, Among the 14 species investigated, the ratios of -/-carotene varied from 0.14 to 4.49, which might be used as an additional taxonomic character in rust fungi.
Candidate genes for carotenoid biosynthesis in Pgt were identified, cloned and functionally complemented using specifically engineered strains of Escherichia coli. The carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in rust fungi was elucidated, with only two genes, CrtYB and CrtI, catalysing the reactions from GGPP to -carotene.
Our understanding of carotenoid pigmentation evolution in rust fungi was improved by phylogenetic analysis. Both CrtYB and CrtI are closely related among rust fungi, other pathogenic fungi, and some aphids.
A blackish-brown pigment was extracted from the wall of wild-type Pgt urediniospores. The spectrophotometric analysis results suggested that the spore wall pigment extracted from urediniospores of Pgt resembled the DOPA type melanin. Plausible structures of the fragments from this pigment were tentatively proposed.||en_AU|
|dc.publisher||University of Sydney||en_AU|
|dc.publisher||Faculty of Science||en_AU|
|dc.publisher||School of Life and Environmental Sciences||en_AU|
|dc.rights||The author retains copyright of this thesis. It may only be used for the purposes of research and study. It must not be used for any other purposes and may not be transmitted or shared with others without prior permission.||en_AU|
|dc.title||Pigments in Rust Fungi: Biosynthesis, Role in Plant-Pathogen Interactions, and Evolution||en_AU|
|dc.type.pubtype||Doctor of Philosophy Ph.D.||en_AU|
|dc.description.disclaimer||Access is restricted to staff and students of the University of Sydney . UniKey credentials are required. Non university access may be obtained by visiting the University of Sydney Library.||en_AU|
|Appears in Collections:||Sydney Digital Theses (University of Sydney Access only)|