|dc.contributor.author||Mekonnen, Alemayehu B||-|
|dc.description.abstract||Medication errors and their adverse outcomes are the most common cause of patient injuries in hospitals. Medication reconciliation is the safety strategy usually called for, to prevent medication errors that occur at care transitions. This strategy has been adopted as a standard practice in many developed countries. However, in Ethiopia, there were no published studies on medication reconciliation, nor evidence-based interventions aimed to tackle the burden of medication errors. This thesis was a medication safety initiative focusing on medication reconciliation intervention overall, and explored the journey to medication reconciliation service implementation as a medication safety strategy in Ethiopian public hospitals. Given the lack of consistent reports regarding the impact of this strategy, the journey to implementation was guided by synthesise of the evidence supporting the effectiveness of this intervention. The findings of our systematic reviews have shown that medication reconciliation interventions carried out through pharmacist assessment at hospital transitions were found to be an effective strategy for improving clinical outcomes (e.g. adverse drug event-related hospital visits, all-cause readmissions, and emergency department visits), as well as process outcomes, such as the occurrence of medication errors. Therefore, the overarching aim of this thesis was to implement a pharmacist-led medication reconciliation intervention in resource-limited settings. Implementation of medication reconciliation is not an ultimate end but sustainability is an issue, and this should be corroborated by corresponding changes in attitudes, teamwork, communication, culture and leadership. For this purpose, the thesis employed methods from both safety and implementation sciences for successful implementation of the medication reconciliation program. System approaches to patient safety, such as patient safety culture has been explored, and patients’ experiences of medication-related adverse events have been discussed followed by a theoretically robust evidence-based exploration of the barriers to implementation.
Patient safety culture in Ethiopian public hospitals has been found lower than the benchmark studies. Importantly, understaffing followed by problems during handoffs and care transitions and punitive response to error were identified as major safety problems. Particularly, handoffs and care transitions were largely affected by the lack of teamwork across units, punitive response to error reporting and managerial inaction for promoting patient safety. In addition to system factors presumed to affect patient safety, other factors such as individual healthcare professionals, patient, and task factors have been identified as challenges to achieve an optimal patient safety in the Ethiopian public hospitals. Resource limitations (e.g. material deficiencies, poor infrastructure) have been indicated as the greatest barriers for patient safety. Patients expressed a range of perceived experiences related to their medication, and a number of strategies required to improve patient safety practices have been suggested. Changes in practice, processes, structure, and systems were believed to help improve patient safety in the Ethiopian health care system.
The results of this thesis have demonstrated that hospital pharmacists were very much enthusiastic for their extended roles and were positive towards the future of the profession; however, there were many factors that likely influenced their behaviour in the clinical practice, and these behavioural determinants were predominantly related to ‘Knowledge’, ‘Skills’, ‘Environmental constraints’, ‘Motivation and goals’, ‘Social influences’, and ‘Social/professional role’.
While medication errors were highly prevalent at the time of hospital admission, this thesis has also found that pharmacist-led medication reconciliation was able to minimize medication errors significantly. Thus, implementation of medication reconciliation as a medication safety strategy is feasible, and pharmacists may be regarded as key resource personnel for the safe use of medications at the time of hospital admission. However, the sustainability of this service utilization is highly dependent on other behavioural determinants, such as knowledge and skill, competing priorities, and reimbursement for clinical services.||en_AU|
|dc.publisher||University of Sydney||en_AU|
|dc.publisher||Faculty of Pharmacy||en_AU|
|dc.rights||The author retains copyright of this thesis. It may only be used for the purposes of research and study. It must not be used for any other purposes and may not be transmitted or shared with others without prior permission.||en_AU|
|dc.subject.other||! includes published articles||en_AU|
|dc.title||Medication Reconciliation as a Medication Safety Initiative||en_AU|
|dc.type.pubtype||Doctor of Philosophy Ph.D.||en_AU|
|Appears in Collections:||Sydney Digital Theses (Open Access)|