This thesis describes studies on seven potato cultivars with the objective of identifying a potato cultivar with a low glycemic index (GI), and to describe its tuber and starch properties. The potato cultivars were selected in consultation with potato breeders from Agrico Holland and sourced from growers in South Australia (The Mitolo Group) and Tasmania (Agronico) Australia and consisted of well established (Bintje, Desiree, Nicola, Russet Burbank) and newly introduced commercial cultivars (Carisma, Maiflower, Virginia Rose). The potato cultivars were tested for their GI according to International Standard Organisation (ISO) guidelines. In vitro enzymatic starch hydrolysis and chemical analyses were performed for each potato cultivar and correlations sought with the respective GI values. Different imaging techniques were used to study and compare cell structure and native starch granule morphology, and the effect of cooking on cell wall structure and starch gelatinization. Physicochemical and functional properties of starch from the seven potato cultivars were analyzed for amylose content, amylopectin chain length distribution, relative crystallinity, phosphorus content, granule size distribution, thermal properties and starch pasting profiles. Physicochemical, thermal and pasting properties of starch from the same cultivars of potatoes grown in the Netherlands under very different conditions were also examined.