The research in this thesis by publication explores some key aspects of the implementation of the world’s first government funded human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program. The work is focused around the HPV vaccination coverage achieved and the initiation of surveillance and evaluation activities for the Australian program. Australia’s National Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Program commenced in April 2007 and was notable as both the world’s first funded program and for its broad target group (providing catch up vaccination for all females aged 12-26 years between 2007-2009). It remains the world’s most broadly targeted funded catch-up program. As the first country to vaccinate a large proportion of the population with a prophylactic HPV vaccine, findings from coverage and surveillance data are of international interest and significance. The methods used to monitor and evaluate the program, some of which were developed during the research undertaken in this thesis, are key to providing robust coverage and surveillance data. The research indicates that the HPV vaccination catch-up program in Australia achieved a moderately high level of coverage and provides estimates of the extent of under-reporting to the register during the catch up program. The thesis research also addressed some aspects of Australian HPV surveillance, with two main research papers providing a baseline assessment of HPV prevalence pre-vaccination among Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian women and the findings and implications of the investigation of a vaccine safety signal in the Australian program. The research in this thesis thus provides an important contribution to the evaluation of Australia’s program and to monitoring the ongoing impact of the program, which is of both national and international significance.