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|Title:||Dispersal and mating behaviour of Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni(Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae): Implicationsfor population establishment and control.|
|Authors:||Weldon, Christopher William|
|Keywords:||Bactrocera tryoni;density;dipersal;laboratory domestication;lek mass-rearing;mating behaviour;pest monitoring;Queensland fruit fly;sterile insect technique|
|Publisher:||University of Sydney. Biological Sciences|
|Abstract:||The Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae), a major pest of horticulture in eastern Australia, is a relatively poor coloniser of new habitat. This thesis examines behavioural properties that might limit the ability of B. tryoni to establish new populations. As the potential for B. tryoni to establish an outbreak population may be most directly limited by mechanisms associated with dispersal and mating behaviour, these two factors were the focus of this research project. The relevance of dispersal and mating behaviour for control of outbreak populations was assessed. Dispersal (i) Dispersal patterns of males and females are not different. Dispersal of post-teneral male B. tryoni from a point within an orchard near Richmond, New South Wales, was monitored following temporally replicated releases. Application of sterile insect technique (SIT) requires knowledge of dispersal from a release point so that effective release rates can be determined. In addition, dispersal following introduction to new habitat can lead to low or negative population growth and an Allee effect. In Spring and Autumn, 2001 – 2003, three different strains of B. tryoni were released: (1) wild flies reared from infested fruit collected in the Sydney Basin; (2) a laboratory-reared strain with a colour mutation (white marks); and (3) sterile flies obtained by gamma-irradiation of a mass-reared strain. Dispersal was monitored using a grid of traps baited with the male attractant, cuelure. During the majority of releases, flies were massmarked using a self-marking technique and fluorescent pigment powder to enable identification of recaptured flies. A preliminary study found that fluorescent pigment marks had no effect on adult survival and marks did not fade significantly in the laboratory over a period of five weeks after eclosion. As cuelure repels inseminated sexually mature female B. tryoni, unbaited, coloured flat sticky traps, and black and yellow sticky sphere traps baited with a food lure (protein autolysate solution) were used to supplement traps baited with cuelure. The effectiveness of these two sticky trap types was assessed, and recaptures used to compare patterns of dispersal from a release point by male and female B. tryoni. Fluorescent yellow (chartreuse), green, and clear unbaited flat sticky traps were relatively ineffective for monitoring dispersal of sterile male and female B. tryoni, recapturing only 0.1% of released sterile flies. Monitoring dispersal with sticky ball traps baited with protein autolysate solution was more successful, with yellow spheres and black spheres recapturing 1.7% and 1.5%, respectively. Trap colour had no effect on recaptures on flat sticky traps or sticky spheres. Equal recapture rates on yellow and black sticky sphere traps suggests that the odour of yeast autolysate solution was more important than colour for attraction of post-teneral flies to traps. Using the results of recaptures on odoriferous black and yellow sticky sphere traps within one week of release, regression equations of male and female recaptures per trap were found to be similar (Figure 4-3). This is the first study to clearly indicate that post-teneral dispersal patterns of male and female B. tryoni released from a point do not differ, enabling the use of existing models to predict density of both sexes of B. tryoni following post-teneral dispersal. (ii) Males disperse further in Spring than in Autumn, but this is not temperature-related. Analysis of replicated recaptures in traps baited with cuelure revealed that dispersal of male B. tryoni in an orchard near Richmond, New South Wales, was higher in Spring than in Autumn (Figure 5-6). As the maximum daily temperature was significantly higher in Spring than in Autumn this result was unexpected, since earlier studies have found that B. tryoni disperse at the onset of cool weather in search of sheltered over-wintering sites. Dispersal of post-teneral B. tryoni may have been affected by habitat suitability; it was found that seasonal trends in dispersal could have been influenced by local habitat variables. Low mean dispersal distances in Autumn may be explained by the presence of fruiting hosts in the orchard, or the availability of resources required by over-wintering flies. There was no significant correlation between temperature and mean dispersal distance, suggesting that higher rates of dispersal cannot be explained by temperature-related increases in activity. Recapture rate per trap was significantly negatively correlated with increasing daily maximum and average temperature. This may have consequences for detection of B. tryoni outbreaks in quarantine areas due to reduced cuelure trap efficiency. (iii) Maturity and source variation affect dispersal and response to cuelure. This research indicated that most male and female B. tryoni do not disperse far from a release point, suggesting that an invading propagule would not spread far in the first generation. However, there is considerable variation in flight capability among individuals. Comparison of wild, laboratory-reared white marks, and gamma-irradiated sterile male B. tryoni indicated that mean dispersal distance and redistribution patterns were not significantly affected by fly origin. Despite no difference in dispersal distance from the release point, recaptures of wild and sterile males per Lynfield trap baited with cuelure were highest within one week after release, whereas recaptures of white marks males per trap increased in the second week. This result may offer evidence to support the hypothesis that sterile male B. tryoni respond to cuelure at an earlier age. Rearing conditions used to produce large quantities of males for sterilisation by gamma-irradiation may select for earlier sexual maturity. Mating Behaviour (i) Density and sex ratio do not affect mating, except at low densities. Demographic stochasticity in the form of sex ratio fluctuations at low population density can lead to an observed Allee effect. The effect of local group density and sex ratio on mating behaviour and male mating success of a laboratory-adapted strain of B. tryoni was examined in laboratory cages. In the laboratory-adapted strain of B. tryoni used in this study, a group of one female and one male was sufficient for a good chance of mating success. The proportion of females mated and male mating success was not significantly affected by density or sex ratio, although variability in male mating success was higher at low density. This could indicate that mating success of B. tryoni can be reduced when local group density is low owing to decreased frequency in encounters between males and females. (ii) Mass-reared males exhibit aberrant mating behaviour, but this does not reduce mating success. Strong artificial selection in mass-rearing facilities may lead to decreased competitiveness of sterile males released in SIT programs as a result of alteration or loss of ecological and behavioural traits required in the field. The effects of domestication and irradiation on the mating behaviour of males of B. tryoni were investigated by caging wild, mass-reared and sterile (mass-reared and gammairradiated) males with wild females. Mating behaviour of mass-reared males was different from that of wild males, but behaviour of wild and sterile males was similar. Mass-reared males were found to engage in mounting of other males much more frequently than wild and sterile males, and began calling significantly earlier before darkness. Male calling did not appear to be associated with female choice of mating partners, although this does not exclude the possibility that calling is a cue used by females to discriminate between mating partners. Conditions used to domesticate and rear large quantities of B. tryoni for SIT may select for an alternative male mating strategy, with mass-reared males calling earlier and exercising less discrimination between potential mating partners. Despite differences in behaviour of wild, mass-reared and sterile males, frequency of successful copulations and mating success were similar. (iii) Pheromone-calling by males was increased in larger aggregations but this did not result in significantly more female visits. Finally, large laboratory cages with artificial leks were used to investigate the importance in B. tryoni of male group size for female visitation at lek sites and initiation of male pheromone-calling. Calling propensity of male B. tryoni was increased by the presence of conspecific males. Females visited the largest lek more frequently than single males, but there was no correlation between lek size and female visitation. Female B. tryoni had a limited capacity to perceive a difference between the number of calling males; female visitation at leks was only weakly associated with male calling, suggesting that lek size and the number of pheromone-calling males may not be the only factor important in locating mates in B. tryoni. The weak, but positive correlation between male calling and female visitation may indicate that passive attraction maintains lek-mating in B. tryoni. Further studies are essential on mating behaviour of B. tryoni, including identification of male mating aggregations in the field, measurement of habitat variables associated with male aggregations, the influence of density on wild B. tryoni mating success, and the role of pheromone-calling, in order to optimise use of SIT for control of this pest.|
|Rights and Permissions:||Copyright Weldon, Christopher William;http://www.library.usyd.edu.au/copyright.html|
|Appears in Collections:||Sydney Digital Theses (Open Access)|
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