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|Title:||Genetics of the immune cell receptors TCRB and CCR5 in human disease|
|Authors:||Buhler, Marc McWilliams|
|Keywords:||T-cell receptor;TCRBV;chemokine receptor;CCR5;multiple sclerosis;diabetes;Ashkenazi Jew;Khazar Kingdom|
|Publisher:||University of Sydney.|
|Abstract:||Abstract Early in the evolution of the vertebrates it is thought that two genomic duplications occurred, providing a basis for the evolution in body plan and neural crest of very early vertebrates and substantive material for further evolution of various gene families such as those making up a number of components of the adaptive vertebrate immune system. While the bony fish possibly had another, genome duplications are not generally a feature of vertebrate evolution and indeed the appearance of an antigen-adaptive immune recognition system may have served to limit the size that various vertebrate genomes, including that of the human, can in fact achieve. This initial step in vertebrate immune evolution, the establishment of recognition of non-self against the unique set of 'self' epitopes for an individual, provided an immensely powerful weapon in immune function with the ability to tailor a defense against as-yet-unseen dangers at any time albeit with the pitfall of autoimmune disease. As the recognition sites of the antigen receptor molecules such as TcR are produced by clonal modification of the segments provided in the germline and are thus not in the genome itself, pathogens have not been able to hijack this one component of the immune system in the way so many other components have been put to use throughout evolution, nor do these components necessarily reveal themselves as associated with disease through genome screens. Importantly, overall immune function is determined not just by the potential repertoire of recognition receptors but also by the ability of immunocompetent cells to migrate in a tissue specific fashion through the use of various chemokines and their receptors. Typical of the hijacking of an immune system component by a pathogen is the use of a chemokine ligand gene in the viral ancestor to SIV and HIV, allowing for virus binding to immunocompetent cells as is seen in the use of the CCR5 chemokine receptor by macrophage-tropic HIV strains. This thesis describes the allele and genotype frequencies for several TcR beta-chain variable segment polymorphisms in a population of MS patients compared with controls before and after stratification for HLA-DR15, polymorphism in the Apo-1 / Fas promoter, the DRB1 Val86/Val86 genotype, CCR5-delta32 and the HLA-DRA promoter. The thesis continues with CCR5-delta32 genotyping in IDDM, MS and SLE cohorts and then examines the question of the population of origin of the delta-32 allele of the CCR5 receptor for chemokine. Here, a case / control comparison of 122 RR-MS patients with 96 normal individuals was made for allele and genotype frequencies and for haplotypes formed by pairs of TCRB markers. Further analysis was made after HLA-DR15 stratification. Linkage disequilibrium was found between pairs of alleles of bv8s1, bv10s1, bv15s1 and bv3s1 loci in both patients and controls. In the RR-MS cohort, an increase in the allele frequency of bv8s1*2 was seen (p = 0.03) and the haplotype bv8s1*2 / bv3s1*1 was increased (p = 0.006), and both were found to be statistically significant. In the DR15-positive group, association between MS and TCRB was seen with the bv8s1*2 allele (p = 0.05) and the bv8s1*2 / bv10s1 haplotypes (p = 0.048), while the haplotype associations seen among the DR15-negative patients included the bv3s1*1 allele (bv10s1*1 / bv3s1*1, p = 0.022; bv8s1*2 / bv3s1*1, p = 0.048). While no associations were found after stratification for SDF1-3'A, Apo-1 / Fas or DRB1 there were modest interactions between bv3s1, bv10s1 and bv15s1 and the HLA-DRA promoter. These results support the involvement of the TCRB region in MS susceptibility. The further study of autoimmune disease here includes genotype analysis of CCR5-delta32 in type 1 diabetes (IDDM) and SLE. CCR5 is the major co-receptor for viral entry used by macrophage-tropic HIV strains and protection from infection is seen in homozygotes for CCR5-delta32. In diabetes, infiltration of pancreatic tissue by autoreactive T-cells involves secretion of multiple cytokines and chemokine receptor expression. Variation in the chemokine receptor CCR5 may result in differences in inflammatory cell migration in response to relevant chemokines. Adolescents with type 1 diabetes were genotyped for CCR5-delta32 (n = 626). The allele frequency was compared with that of 253 non-diabetic adolescents and with that of 92 adults with SLE. A reduced allele frequency was seen in type 1 diabetes compared with controls (0.092 vs 0.123, p = 0.05). This difference was not seen for the cohort of patients with SLE (freq = 0.114). A reduction in the number of CCR5-delta32/delta32 homozygotes, who lack CCR5, in the type 1 diabetes cohort was also seen and while not statistically significant (2 observed compared to 5.25 expected; p = 0.12) is interesting. These results suggest a partial protection from type 1 diabetes for CCR5-delta32 homozygous individuals is possible and that CCR5 has a potential role in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. Global surveys of the CCR5-delta32 allele have confirmed a single mutation event in a Northeastern European population as the source of this allele. Here, Australian Ashkenazi Jews (n = 807) were found to have a CCR5-delta32 allele frequency of 14.6% while Australian Sephardic Jews (n = 35) had a frequency of 5.7% and non-Jewish Australian controls (n = 311) had an allele frequency of 11.25%. Data on birthplace of grandparents showed a gradient with highest CCR5-delta32 frequencies from Eastern European Ashkenazim (~19.5% for those whose four grandparents come only from Russia, Poland, Hungary, Austria and Czechoslovakia; n = 197) which differs significantly from the frequency seen in Ashkenazi Jews from Western Europe (n = 101, p = 0.001). Homozygotes for CCR5-delta32 were genotyped with 3p21 region microsatellites. This has defined an ancestral haplotype on which the mutation first occurred and helped to date this event to between 40 and 50 generations ago or just over a thousand years ago. The population gradient, combined with the dating of the mutation by microsatellite allele frequencies, suggests an origin for the CCR5-delta32 allele in a population ancestral to the Ashkenazim. The distribution in non-Jewish populations in northern Europe has led others to postulate spread of the mutation by Vikings. It is hypothesised here that the link between the two populations could be the kingdom of Khazaria with subsequent admixture into both Swedish Vikings and Ashkenazi Jews. The basic driving force of evolution is through selection and the immune system has a role which, through the survival pressure exerted by viruses and other pathogens, has the potential to exert a great deal of selective force on the various components of this system. The effects of this pronounced selection on an immune system component can be seen for example in the increase of the CCR5-delta32 allele over the last thousand years to the current frequency. As mentioned, some immune system components are not affected by such straightforward selection. In the case of the TCRBV segments, effects on the immune repertoire can occur through MHC interaction at the point of thymic entry and in the effects of various superantigens, but the actual binding pockets that recognise antigen are themselves unable to be selected for (or against). The findings presented in this thesis provide support for the association of TCRBV gene segments with multiple sclerosis and also provide support for the further study of the role of the CCR5-delta32 allele in type 1 diabetes. Furthermore, data presented here suggests that the CCR5-delta32 allele had an origin in the Khazar Kingdom just over a thousand years ago, accounting for the allele frequencies in both the Ashkenazi Jews and in lands frequented by the Vikings. The definition of an extended ancestral haplotype for the CCR5-delta32 allele shows how the effect of selection of an allele of one gene can carry with it specific alleles of a large number of other genes as well.|
|Rights and Permissions:||Copyright Buhler, Marc McWilliams;http://www.library.usyd.edu.au/copyright.html|
|Appears in Collections:||Sydney Digital Theses (Open Access)|
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