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|Title:||THE P2X7 RECEPTOR OF HUMAN LEUKOCYTES|
|Keywords:||P2X7 receptor;single nucleotide polymorphism;chronic lymphocytic leukemia;ATP-induced ethidium uptake|
|Publisher:||University of Sydney. Medicine|
|Abstract:||Lymphocytes from normal subjects and patients with B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) show functional responses to extracellular ATP characteristic of the P2X7 receptor. These responses include opening of a cation selective channel/pore which allows entry of the fluorescent dye, ethidium+ and activation of a membrane metalloprotease which sheds the adhesion molecule L-selectin. In this thesis, the surface expression of P2X7 receptors was measured in normal leucocytes, platelets and B-CLL lymphocytes and compared with their functional responses. Monocytes showed 4-5 fold greater expression of P2X7 than B-, T- and NK- lymphocytes, while P2X7 expression on neutrophils and platelets was weak. All cell types demonstrated abundant intracellular expression of this receptor. All 12 subjects with B-CLL expressed surface P2X7 at about the same level as for B-lymphocytes from normal subjects. P2X7 function, measured by ATP-induced uptake of ethidium, correlated closely with surface expression of this receptor in normal and B-CLL lymphocytes and monocytes. However, the ATP-induced uptake of ethidium into the malignant B-lymphocytes in 3 patients was low or absent. The lack of P2X7 function in these B-lymphocytes was confirmed by the failure of ATP to induce Ba2+ uptake into their lymphocytes. This lack of function of the P2X7 receptor resulted in a failure of ATP-induced shedding of L-selectin, an adhesion molecule which directs the recirculation of lymphocytes from blood into the lymph node. To study a possible genetic basis of non-functional P2X7 receptor, we sequenced DNA coding for the carboxyl terminal tail of P2X7. In 33 of 130 normal subjects a heterozygous nucleotide substitution (1513A--C) was found while 3 subject carried the homozygous substitution which codes for glutamic acid to alanine at amino acid position 496. Surface expression of P2X7 on lymphocytes was not affected by this 496Glu--Ala polymorphism demonstrated both by confocal microscopy and immunofluorescent staining. Monocytes and lymphocytes from the 496Glu--Ala homozygote subject expressed non-functional receptor while heterozygotes showed P2X7 function which was half that of wild type P2X7. Results of transfection experiments showed the mutant P2X7 receptor was non-functional when expressed at low receptor density but regained function at a high receptor density. This density-dependence of mutant P2X7 function was also seen on differentiation of fresh monocytes to macrophages with interferon-gamma which upregulated mutant P2X7 and partially restored its function. P2X7-mediated apoptosis of lymphocytes was impaired in homozygous mutant P2X7 compared with wild type. The data suggest that the glutamic acid at position 496 is required for optimal assembly of the P2X7 receptor. Apart from the 496Glu--Ala polymorphism, three other single nucleotide polymorphisms, 155His--Tyr, 348Ala--Thr and 568Ile--Asn were also found in the P2X7 receptor. The site directed mutant cDNA were generated for all 3 polymorphisms and transfected into HEK293 cells to study the impact of these polymorphisms on P2X7 function. Results suggested that Ile568 is important for P2X7 protein trafficking to cell surface. Further study of these two loss-of-function polymorphisms (496Glu--Ala and 568Ile--Asn) may help better understanding of the functional domains in the P2X7 receptor and its role in CLL, lymphoma and infectious diseases. Conclusions: 1.P2X7 receptor is expressed in human leukocytes, including lymphocytes, natural killer cells as well as monocytes, on both surface and intracellular locations. 2.Both the expression and function of P2X7 are highly variable between in human individuals. Non-functional P2X7 receptors are found in some subjects, including both normal subjects and CLL patients, and are often associated with defects in ATP-induced cytotoxicity and L-selectin shedding. 3.Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 496Glu--Ala and 568Ile--Asn, are found at low frequency in the human population and lead to the loss-of-function of P2X7. Both permeabllity function and the downstream effects mediated by P2X7 are affected by these two SNPs. The mechanisms for the loss-of-function differs between the two polymorphisms.|
|Rights and Permissions:||Copyright Gu, Baijun (Ben);http://www.library.usyd.edu.au/copyright.html|
|Appears in Collections:||Sydney Digital Theses (Open Access)|
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