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|Title:||OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNOEA AND PERIODONTITIS|
Faculty of Dentistry
|Abstract:||Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and its associated daytime symptoms form a syndrome, obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS) that affects about 5% of the population worldwide (Young et al 2002a, Pack 2006). OSA is characterized by repeated episodes of upper airway obstruction during sleep, resulting in recurrent hypoxemia and sleep fragmentation (Hensley & Ray 2005). These in turn are associated with neurocognitive disorders, hypertension and cardiovascular complications (Pack 2006). Current therapies for this condition include surgical interventions, oral appliances and continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP). Systemic and local airway inflammation has recently been linked to OSA and is hypothesized to increase the risk of cardiovascular complications (Lavie 2005). While the exact mechanism is not certain, it is believed that the underlying systemic inflammation from OSA is due to the hypoxia/reperfusion injury from intermittent hypoxia that occurs with OSA (Lavie 2005). Specifically, the episodic hypoxia in OSA leads to increased production of reactive oxidative species (ROS) and, via various pathways, in the formation of systemic inflammatory mediators. The resultant inflammatory response is then responsible for the increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality by potentiating disease in those that already have inflammatory disease or triggering inflammatory diseases in people with existing genetic, behavioural and environmental exposure. Periodontitis involves the supporting structures of the tooth and is a disease caused by specific bacteria that triggers an inflammatory response (Kinane 2001). Tissue damage and destruction, including loss of the connective tissue attachment between the tooth and the jaw, together with resorption of supporting bone, is initiated by the micro-organisms and mediated by the host response. Periodontitis, which is a severe form of periodontal disease, is one of the most common chronic infections in the world. The prevalence of moderate to severe periodontitis across the globe is in the range of 5 to 20 % (Burt 2005). Recent studies have speculated on an association between periodontitis and systemic inflammation in, for example, diabetes (Soskolne & Klinger 2001), rheumatoid arthritis (Mercado et al. 2000) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) (Beck & Offenbacher 2005), but no research has been undertaken on the link between OSA and periodontitis. This review will focus on features of OSA, inflammation and periodontitis to examine if there is a possible link between OSA and periodontitis by means of systemic inflammation.|
|Department/Unit/Centre:||Faculty of Dentistry|
|Appears in Collections:||Course Work Theses - Dentistry|
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