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|Title:||B-1 and B-2 B cell responses to lipopolysaccharide: Putative roles in the pathogenesis of periodontitis.|
|Authors:||Philips, Julia Rachel|
|Keywords:||B-1 B cells|
B-2 B cells
|Publisher:||University of Sydney.|
Denistry, Institute of Dental Research
|Abstract:||Periodontal disease is one of the most widespread diseases in humans and is characterised by chronic gingival inflammation and B cell accumulation and resorption of the crest of alveolar bone with subsequent loss of teeth. Porphyromonas gingivalis has been identified as a putative aetiological agent for periodontitis. The aim of the research presented in this thesis was to investigate, using in vitro systems, the responses of autoreactive B-1 and B-2 cells to enterobacterial and nonenterobacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to shed light on the pathogenesis of chronic periodontitis and other diseases involving B cell accumulation and autoantibody production. The hypotheses tested were: (1) B cells respond differently to enterobacterial and non-enterobacterial LPS. (2) B-1 cells are activated by a lower concentration of LPS than B-2 cells. (3) LPS stimulation results in preferential accumulation of B-1 cells. Findings consistent with these hypotheses would provide new evidence for different roles for B-1 and B-2 cells in immune responses and that LPS stimulation could lead to B-1 cell accumulation in diseases thus characterised. Initial experiments investigated the responses of representative B-1 (CH12) and B-2 (WEHI-279) cell lines to preparations of P. gingivalis and Salmonella enteritidis LPS utilising flow cytometric and quantitative molecular methods. The cell lines responded differently to the two LPS preparations. There were significant but limited effects on viability and proliferation in the WEHI-279 cell line, but no significant changes in mRNA expression levels for genes including Toll-like receptors (TLR2, TLR4, RP105), immunoglobulin (IgM), cytokines (IL-6, IL-10), co-stimulatory molecules (CD80, CD86), and regulators of apoptosis (Bcl-2, Bax). In the CH12 cell line however, LPS stimulation had greater effect. Addition of S. enteritidis LPS from a threshold level of 100ng/mL was found to rescue the cells from death, reflected by the percentage viability and proliferation. Stimulation of CH12 cells with S. enteritidis LPS also led to a decrease in expression of RP105 mRNA, which may be part of a negative feedback loop. Interestingly, stimulation with low concentrations P. gingivalis LPS appeared to inhibit proliferation but high LPS concentrations stimulated proliferation of CH12 cells, although no further significant effects were noted in other analyses. Evidence was found that CH12 cells have a high basal level of activation. This suggests that this line is constitutively activated. Stimulation with P. gingivalis or S. enteritidis LPS did not affect the level of CD80 mRNA expression. It is possible that the CH12 line constitutively expresses a maximal level of CD80 (and possibly CD86) and further stimulation will not cause any increase. Since S. enteritidis LPS appeared to have more pronounced effects on both B cell populations, this LPS was used to further investigate B cell subset responses in a mixed splenocyte culture system. Experiments examining percentage viability and number of viable cells indicated that B-1 and B-2 B cells responded differently to LPS stimulation. A threshold level for B-2 cell response (significant increase in cell number) was found to be 100ng/mL LPS, in contrast to the B-1 B cell subset which were only significantly different to the unstimulated cells when stimulated with 50μg/mL LPS. By examining the expression of CD80, the majority of murine splenic B-1 cells were found to activated prior to any LPS stimulation in vitro. In contrast, the B-2 subset showed significant increase in CD80 expression only at high (≥10μg/mL) LPS concentrations. Studies of the division index of B-1 and B-2 cells showed a significant response in both subsets following stimulation with 1μg/mL and 10μg/mL LPS. However, overall, the results are inconsistent with LPS driving the preferential accumulation of B-1 cells in disease states. These experiments provided useful evidence that supported the idea that B-1 and B-2 cells respond differently to LPS. However, these studies were unable to directly address the role of P. gingivalis LPS in periodontitis. It may be that P. gingivalis LPS could have different effects to S. enteritidis LPS on primary B cells. It is still possible that B-1 cells may be more sensitive to P. gingivalis, as opposed to S. enteritidis LPS. Studies by other groups have suggested that the TH1/TH2 profile is skewed towards TH2 in chronic periodontitis and that P. gingivalis may drive this shift via its ability to signal through TLR2 (and modulate TLR4 signalling). Further, recent studies in our laboratories have found that P. gingivalis gingipains are able to polyclonally activate B cells and to break down both IFNγ and IL-12. Future studies should further examine the effects of B-1 and B-2 interactions in the mixed lymphocyte system together with subsequent studies utilising human periodontitis biopsies. The results presented in this thesis, together with work undertaken by other investigators, suggests that LPS could perturb the normal homeostatic mechanisms of the B-1 B cell-subset and increase polyclonal activation therefore contributing to the genesis of pathologies such as chronic periodontitis.|
|Description:||Master of Science|
|Rights and Permissions:||The author retains copyright of this thesis.|
|Type of Work:||Masters Thesis|
|Appears in Collections:||Sydney Digital Theses (Open Access)|
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|01front.pdf||Thesis front matter||153.01 kB||Adobe PDF||View/Open|
|02whole.pdf||Entire thesis||4.39 MB||Adobe PDF||View/Open|
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