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terminal and internal amino and amidoalkynes
|Publisher:||Science. School of Chemistry|
|Abstract:||This thesis describes the synthesis of terminal and internal amino and amidoalkynes and their hydroamination (cyclisation) catalysed by the complex (bis(N-methylimidazol-2-yl)methane)dicarbonylrhodium(I) tetraphenylborate (1). A series of analogous palladium complexes were also prepared and investigated for catalytic hydroamination. The scope of the rhodium(I) complex (1) for the intramolecular hydroamination of more complex amino and amidoalkyne substrates was investigated. This was made possible with the synthesis of aliphatic substrates, namely, 4 pentyn 1 amide (3) and 5 hexyn 1 amide (4) and a number of aromatic substrates, namely, 1, 4 diamino-2, 5 diethynylbenzene (5), 1, 4-diamino-2, 5 bis(phenylethynyl)benzene (6), 2, 3-diamino-1, 4-diethynylbenzene (7), 2, 3-diamino-1, 4-bis(phenylethynyl)benzene (8), 1, 5-bis(acetamido)-2, 4-diethynylbenzene (9), N-(acetyl)-2-ethynylbenzylamine (10) and N-(acetyl)-2-(phenylethynyl)benzylamine (11). The rhodium(I) complex (1) catalytically cyclised the aliphatic 4 pentyn 1 amide (3) regioselectively to the 6 membered ring, 3, 4 dihydro 2 pyridone (64) as the sole product. Attempts to cyclise 5 hexyn 1 amide (4) to produce either the 6 or 7 membered ring were unsuccessful. Compounds 5, 6, 7 and 8 were doubly cyclised to 1, 5 dihydro pyrrolo[2, 3 f]indole (71), 1, 5-dihydro-2, 6-diphenyl-pyrrolo[2, 3 f]indole (73), 1, 8-dihydro-pyrrolo[2, 3 g]indole (74) and 1, 8-dihydro-2, 7-diphenyl-pyrrolo[2, 3 g]indole (75) respectively. The aromatic amides with terminal acetylenes 9 and 10 cyclised to give 1, 7 diacetyl pyrrolo[3, 2 f]indole (76) and N (acetyl) 1, 2 dihydroisoquinoline (77) respectively. However, attempts to cyclise 11 were unsuccessful. Thus the rhodium(I) complex (1) successfully catalysed via hydroamination both terminal and internal acetylenic amine and amide substrates, to give pyridones, indoles and isoquinolines. Cationic and neutral palladium complexes incorporating the bidentate heterocyclic nitrogen donor ligand bis(N-methylimidazol-2-yl)methane (bim; 2) were synthesised: [Pd(bim)Cl2] (15), [Pd(bim)2][BF4]2 (17) [Pd(bim)(Cl)(CH3)] (14), [Pd(bim)(CH3)(NCCH3)][BF4] (16). All of the complexes were active as catalysts for the intramolecular hydroamination reaction, using the cyclisation of 4 pentyn 1 amine (21) to 2 methyl 1 pyrroline (22) as the model test reaction. Percentage conversions, turnover numbers and reaction profiles for each complex were compared to the rhodium(I) complex (1). These studies have shown that the catalytic activity was not significantly dependent on the bim donor ligand or the choice of metal. Substitution of the bim (2) ligand with the COD ligand and the use of methanol as the solvent did impact significantly on the efficiency of the hydroamination reactions.|
|Description:||Doctor of Philosophy(PhD),|
|Appears in Collections:||Sydney Digital Theses (Open Access)|
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