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|Title:||The Distribution of Platinum Complexes in Biological Systems|
multicellular tumour spheroids
|Publisher:||University of Sydney.|
School of Chemistry
|Abstract:||The toxicity of platinum anticancer drugs presents a major obstacle in the effective treatment of tumours. Much of the toxicity stems from a lack of specificity of the drugs for the sites at which they are able to exert maximum anticancer activity. An improved understanding of the behaviour of the drugs in the tumour environment may assist in the rational design of future platinum anticancer agents with enhanced specificity and reduced toxicity. In the work presented herein, the specificity of two classes of platinum anticancer agents was assessed (platinum(IV) cisplatin analogues and platinum(II) anthraquinone complexes). The interaction of the platinum(IV) agents with DNA, believed to be their main cellular target, was examined using XANES spectroscopy. This experiment was designed to assess the ability of the drugs to interact with DNA and thus exert their anticancer activity. It was shown that the platinum(IV) complexes were not reduced by DNA during 48 hr incubation. It was not possible to conclusively determine whether the interaction of the complexes with DNA was direct or platinum(II) catalysed, or whether interaction had occurred at all. The distribution of platinum(II) anthraquinone complexes and their corresponding anthraquinone ligands in tumour cells (A2780 ovarian and DLD-1 colon cancer cell lines) was investigated. The cytotoxicity of the compounds in DLD-1 cells was also assessed. It was found that the compounds were efficiently taken up into the cells and entered the lysosomal compartments almost exclusively. This suggested that the cytotoxicity of the drugs was caused by lysosomal disruption, or that the platinum complexes were degraded, leaving a platinum species to enter the cell nuclei and interact with DNA. Alternatively, the complexes may bind to proteins and transport into the nuclei of the cells, though with their fluorescence quenched by the protein. The penetration and distribution of platinum(IV) complexes was assessed in DLD-1 multicellular tumour spheroids (established models of solid tumours) using a number of synchrotron techniques, including micro-tomography, micro-SRIXE, and micro-XANES. The complexes were found to be capable of penetrating throughout the entire volume of the spheroids. Micro-XANES indicated that in central and peripheral spheroidal regions, bound platinum species were present largely as platinum(II).|
|Description:||Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)|
|Rights and Permissions:||The author retains copyright of this thesis.|
|Type of Work:||PhD Doctorate|
|Appears in Collections:||Sydney Digital Theses (Open Access)|
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|02whole.pdf||Main sections of thesis||11.02 MB||Adobe PDF||View/Open|
|01front.pdf||Introductory sections||294.92 kB||Adobe PDF||View/Open|
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